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1. The basic building block of matter are atoms. Every atom is basically a tiny sphere. Every atom is composed of 2 regions, the outer part of the sphere is called the _______ and accounts for about 99.95% of the volume of an atom. 2. The electron cloud is the region of an atom in which the __________ are found. __________ are tiny particles with a -1 electrical charge and almost no mass. Electricity is _________ flowing though a conductor, usually metal. 3. Every atom is composed of 2 regions. The very tiny center part of the spherical atom is called the _____________. The __________ accounts for about 99.95% of the mass of the atom even though it has almost no volume. 4. Every atom has a nucleus. The nucleus contains 2 different types of particles. The particle with the +1 electrical charge is called the __________. It has almost 2000 times more mass than an electron. The number of __________ in the nucleus determine how many electrons the neutral atom has and all of the chemical reactions the atom can do. 5. Every atom has a nucleus. The nucleus contains 2 different types of particles. The particle with no (0) electrical charge is called the __________. This particle is electrically neutral. The +1 charged protons would repel each other and destroy the nucleus if the _______________ were not neutralizing the repulsive force between the protons. 6. When graphing how the experimental “effect” depends on the experimental “cause”, the graph can show either a _______________ or an inverse relationship or no relationship. If the “effect” (dependent variable) value increases when we make the “cause” (independent variable) value increase, then we call this a ____________________. 7. When graphing how the experimental “effect” depends on the experimental “cause”, the graph can show either a direct relationship or an ______________ or no relationship. If the “effect” (dependent variable) value decreases when we make the “cause” (independent variable) value increase, then we call this an ____________________. 8. When graphing how the experimental “effect” depends on the experimental “cause”, the graph can show either a direct relationship or an inverse relationship or _____________. If the “effect” (dependent variable) value doesn’t change when we make the “cause” (independent variable) value increase, then we call this ____________________. 9. An experiment needs an _________________ to validate its results. The ________________ can be one of 2 things. The __________________ can be a set of experimental conditions we repeat several times throughout the experiment. Or the ________________ can be a set of conditions which other experimenters have used and is considered “normal” or “state of the art.” 10. A variable is something which can change during an experiment. It works best when we only let 2 variables change. All the rest are kept constant and are called _______________. fill in the blanks with these words. Direct relationship ,No relationship ,Proton(s), Neutron(s), Controlled variable(s), Electron(s), Experimental control, Inverse relationship, Electron cloud, Nucleus.
1. The answer is: Electron cloud.
Electron cloud is the probability function that describes a cloud-like region where the electron is likely to be found. It is space where the probability of finding the electron is greatest.
Protons (positive particles) and neutrons (neutral particles) are in the nucleus of an atom and electrons (negative particles) are in the electron cloud.
Nucleus is in the centar of the atom atom and electron cloud is surrounding it.
2. The answer is: Electron(s).
J. J. Thomson discovered the electron in 1897.
His “plum pudding” model (1904) suggested: the electrons are embedded in the positive charge.
The electron (symbol: e⁻) is a subatomic particle whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
3. The answer is: Nucleus.
Famous Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment: he bombarded thin foil of gold with positive alpha particles.
Rutherford observed the deflection of alpha particles on the photographic film.
Alpha particles are helium atom particles, consist of two protons and two neutrons.
According to Rutherford model of the atom: atoms have their charge concentrated in a very small nucleus.
Nucleus of an atom has positive charge, electrons are negative and atom has neutral net charge.
For example, alpha particle is nucleus of a helium-4 atom, which is made of two protons (p⁺) and two neutrons (n°).
4. The answer is: Proton(s).
Protons are made of quarks.
The proton (p⁺) is subatomic particle with a positive electric charge of +1e elementary charge.
Protons and neutrons, each with masses of approximately one atomic mass unit, are called nucleons.
Protons and neutrons are hadrons composed of three valence quarks.
5. The answer is: Neutron(s).
James Chadwick was a British physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.
Neutrons bind with protons with the residual strong force.
Neutron (symbol: n°) is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge.
Protons and neutrons are found in nucleus of an atom (atomic nuclei).
Mass number (A) is sum of protons and neutrons in nucleus of an atom.
6. The answer is: Direct relationship.
In a direct or positive relationship, the values of both variables increase together or decrease together.
If the independent variable increases in value, the dependent variable also increases.
If the independent variable decreases in value, the dependent variable also decreases.
7. The answer is: Inverse relationship.
In an inverse or negative relationship, the values of the variables change in opposite directions.
If the independent variable increases in value, the dependent variable decreases.
If the independent variable decreases in value, the dependent variable increases.
For example, wavelength is the inverse of the frequency.
8. The answer is: No relationship.
If there is no detectable relationship between two variables, they are said to be unrelated or to have a no relationship.
It is not possible to describe how the values of the dependent variable are affected by changes in the values of the independent variable
Correlation is any statistical association, how close two variables are to having a linear relationship with each other.
9. The answer is: Experimental control.
An experimental control is used in scientific experiments to minimize the effect of variables which are not the interest of the study.
The two main variables in an experiment are the independent and dependent variable.
Dependent variable is the variable being tested and measured in a scientific experiment.
Dependent variables depend on the values of independent variables. The dependent variables represent the output or outcome whose variation is being studied.
10. The answer is: Controlled variable(s).
The control variable is not part of an experiment, but it is important because it can have an effect on the results.
A control variable is an experimental element which is constant and unchanged throughout the course of the experimentation.
For example, if the volume is made the control variable, it is not allowed to change it throughout the course of the experiment.
The control variables are not of primary interest to the experimenter.
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