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## Question:

1) The answer is: Ionic bond forms when an element (usually metal) give its extra electron(s) to an element (usually nonmetal) who needs it.

For example compound magnesium chloride (MgCl₂) has ionic bond (the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions).

Magnesium (metal) transfers two electrons (form positive cation) to chlorine (form negative anion).

2) The answer is: Ionic bond is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions (cations and anions).

Cations are positively charged ions, for example Na⁺, Ca²⁺.

Anions are negatively charged ions, for example Cl⁻, O²⁻.

The electrostatic attraction between the anions and cations leads to the formation of a solid with a crystallographic lattice.

3) The answer is: Ionic bond is stronger than other types of bonds.

For example, because ionic compounds have strong ionic bonds, they have higher melting points than compound with other bonds.

The melting point of solid is defined as the temperature at which the solid exists in equilibrium with its liquid under an external pressure of one atmosphere.

4) The answer is: charge and distance are the two factors that affect the strength of the ionic bond.

For example, calcium oxide (CaO) has stronger ionic bond than sodium chloride (NaCl), because two electrons are transferred.

Other example, sodium chloride (NaCl) has stronger ionic bond than potassium chloride (KCl), because shorter distance between cations and anions.

5) The answer is: metals from group 1 and 2 and nonmetals from group 16 and 17 are most likely to form ionic bonds.

For example:

Alkaline metals (group 1), in this example sodium, have lowest ionizations energy and easy remove valence electrons (one electron) and form cation.

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Sodium electron configuration: ₁₁Na 1s²2s²2p⁶3s¹; one valence electron in 3s orbital.

Nonmetals chlorine from group 17 is far right in the main group and it has highest electron afinity, so gain one electron and form anion.

Electron configuration of chlorine: ₁₇Cl 1s² 2s² 2p⁶ 3s² 3p⁵; seven valence electrons 3s and 3p orbitals.

6) The answer is: Ionic compounds have high melting point and good conductivity.

Ionic compounds conduct electricity, because it dissociate in ions and ions conduct electicity.

Ionic substances dissociate in water on cations and anions. For example, dissociation of potassium chloride in water: KCl(aq) → K⁺(aq) + Cl⁻(aq).

Ionic compounds (most of the salts, strong acids and bases) dissolve in water because an ion-dipole interactions.

An ion-dipole is electrostatic interaction between a charged ion (cations and anions) and a molecule that has a dipole (in this example water).

Dipole is a separation of positive and negative charges. In water, hydrogen has positive and oxygen has negative charge.

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7) The answer is: Na⋅↷⋅Cl: → [Na⁺] + [:Cl:⁻].

In this example, sodium (Na) gives valence electron to chlorine (Cl).

Sodium is a metal with 11 electrons, it gives one valence electron to gain stable electron configuration as noble gas neon (Ne).

Chlorine is nonmetal with 17 electrons, it gain one electron to gain stable electron configuration as noble gas argon (Ar).

Sodium form cation Na⁺ and chlorine form anion Cl.

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